To control diet is so much essential for your body in the present ear. Current dietary guidelines from both the American Heart Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program recommend restricting consumption of fat to an upper limit of 30% of daily caloric intake. This limit translates into 67 g of fat for small or sedentary individuals who need 2000 calories per day and 100 g of fat for larger or more active individuals who need 3000 calories per day. With the exception of the World Health Organization Study Group,3 which recommends that 15% of total calories be derived from fat, current guidelines do not specify a lower limit on fat intake.
Definition of a Very Low Fat Diet
For the purposes of this statement, a very low-fat diet is defined as one in which ≤15% of total calories are derived from fat (33 g for a 2000-calorie diet, 50 g for a 3000-calorie diet) with fat calories distributed approximately equally among saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Approximately 15% of the total daily calories consumed should be derived from protein and ≥70% from carbohydrate to control diet.
Data from free-living populations with naturally selected very low-fat diets are becoming increasingly scarce. Almost 3 decades have passed since the publication of the Seven Countries Study report,9 in which Keys and colleagues showed that saturated fat intake was the strongest predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality. The Ni-Hon-San Study10 reported that native Japanese derived 15% of calories from fat; migrant Japanese residing in Honolulu, 33%; and migrant Japanese residing in California, 38%. The higher fat intakes in the latter 2 groups were associated with higher rates of cardiovascular disease. As with much of the available data, confounding due to greater body weights makes interpretation of these results difficult to control diet.
The serial angiographic evaluation has been used in intervention studies to investigate very low-fat diets in patients with atherosclerosis. Subjects participating in the Heidelberg Trial18 were instructed to reduce fat intake to <20% of calories and cholesterol to <200 mg/d and to exercise at home for 30 min/d and in a group for 2 h/wk. After 6 years, LDL-C levels were reduced by 6% in the intervention group and elevated by 1% in the control group; HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were elevated by 14% in the intervention group and 12% in the control group; relative stenosis diameter remained essentially unchanged in the intervention group (59% versus 62%) and worsened in the control group to control diet.
Reducing the fat content of the diet from 35% to 40% of energy to 15% to 20% of energy reduces total cholesterol and LDL-C levels by 10% to 20%.212223242526272829 This response is likely attributable primarily to the decrease in the saturated fat content of the diet rather than the increase in carbohydrate content.2830 Short-term reductions in fat content from 25% to 15% of energy in the absence of weight loss have not been reported to decrease LDL-C levels further.28 to control diet.
Body Weight and Caloric Intake
The high caloric intake associated with high-fat diets is attributed to high palatability ratings and energy density.484950 Well-designed studies have investigated the effect of covert manipulation of the fat content of foods on total energy consumption. Short-term consumption (14 days to 12 weeks) of reduced-fat diets decreases caloric intake and/or bodyweight.5152
The weight of food consumed is frequently maintained or slightly increased when dietary fat content is drastically reduced.295253 Investigators warn that subjects frequently adjust to the low-fat regimen over longer periods of time and increase energy intake, sometimes to prestudy levels.49 Under less restrained conditions, individuals compensate for alterations in the macronutrient content of the diet.5354 Unfortunately, the cost and restrictiveness of controlled long-term metabolic studies impede research on this subject.
The nutrient adequacy of very low-fat diets is highly dependent on individual food choices. Very low-fat diets can include nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat or fat-free dairy products or more recent varieties of fat-free and low-fat alternatives to traditionally high-fat foods, such as snacks and desserts. The new fat-free and low-fat foods can be similar in caloric density to their full-fat counterparts. It has been suggested that confusion exists about appropriate serving sizes and frequency of consumption of some fat-modified foods. It is interesting to note that in an effort to provide specific information, food labeling can have unintended consequences to control diet.
Subgroups at Potential Risk for Nutrient Deficiency
Concern has also been raised about the long-term adequacy of very low-fat diets in meeting essential fatty acid requirements,68, particularly among very young children.69 Very low-fat diets are not advocated for this age group. The importance of the issue is not clear in the absence of established requirements for essential fatty acid intakes at any age. Estimated requirements range from 3% to 5% of caloric intake.7576 This requirement translates to ≈7 to 11 g for a 2000-calorie diet and is usually met by the inclusion of polyunsaturated fats as a source of linolenic acid to control diet.